Apa Artinya Yes It Is

Arabic word for God




) is the common Arabic word for God. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam.[3]
The word is thought to be derived by contraction from
al-ilāh, which means “the god”, and is linguistically related to the Aramaic words Elah and Syriac


(ʼAlāhā) and the Hebrew word
(Elohim) for God.[6]

The word
has been used by Arabic people of different religions since pre-Islamic times.[8]
The pre-Islamic Arabs worshipped a supreme deity whom they called Sang pencipta, alongside other lesser deities.[9]
Muhammad used the word
Sang pencipta
to indicate the Islamic conception of God.
Yang mahakuasa
has been used as a term for God by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and even Arab Christians[10]
after the term “al-ilāh” and “Allah” were used interchangeably in Classical Arabic by the majority of Arabs who had become Muslims. It is also often, albeit not exclusively, used in this way by Bábists, Baháʼís, Mandaeans, Indonesian and Maltese Christians, and Sephardi Jews.[11]
Similar usage by Christians and Sikhs in West Malaysia has recently led to political and legal controversies.[14]


The etymology of the word
has been discussed extensively by classical Arab philologists.[18]
Grammarians of the Basra school regarded it as either formed “spontaneously” (murtajal) or as the definite form of
(from the oral root
with the meaning of “lofty” or “hidden”).[18]
Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew, but most considered it to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article
“the” and


“deity, god” to


“the deity”, or
“the God”.[18]
The majority of modern scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword hypothesis with skepticism.[19]

Cognates of the name “Allāh” exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic.[20]
The corresponding Aramaic form is
), but its emphatic state is


). It is written as


) in Biblical Aramaic and


) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply “God”.[21]

History of usage

Pre-Islamic Arabians

Regional variants of the word
occur in both pagan and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions.[8]
Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Halikuljabbar in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. According to the Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir, Arab pagans considered Tuhan as an unseen God who created and controlled the Universe. Pagans believed worship of humans or animals who had lucky events in their life brought them closer to God. Pre-Islamic Meccans worshiped Tuhan alongside a host of lesser gods and those whom they called the “daughters of Allah.”[9]
Islam forbade worship of anyone or thing other than God.[23]
Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name as a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon.[24]
The term may have been vague in the Meccan religion.[24]
According to one hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Yang mahakuasa (the supreme deity of the tribal federation around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) adv lewat the other gods.[8]
However, there is also evidence that Allah and Hubal were two distinct deities.[8]
According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Yang mahakuasa and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh after their conquest of Mecca, about a century before the time of Muhammad.[8]
Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Tuhan as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but nothing precise is known about this use.[8]
Some scholars have suggested that Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities.[27]
There is disagreement on whether Allah played a major role in the Meccan religious cult.[27]
No iconic representation of Allah is known to have existed.[29]
Yang mahakuasa is the only god in Mecca that did not have an idol.[31]
Muhammad’s father’s name was


meaning “the slave of Allāh”.[26]


In Islam,
is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God in other Abrahamic religions.[11]
is usually seen as the personal name of God, a notion which became disputed in contemporary scholarship, including the question, whether or not the word
should be translated as

According to Islamic belief, Allah is the most common word to represent God,[33]
and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith.[11]
“He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind.”[11]
“He is unique (


) and inherently one (


), all-merciful and omnipotent.”[11]
No human eyes can see Allah till the Day Of Judgement.[34]
The Qur’an declares “the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures.”[11]
Allah doesn’t depend on anything.[35]
God is titinada a part of the Christian Trinity.[36]
God has no parents and no children.[37]

The concept correlates to the Tawhid, where chapter 112 of the Qur’an (Al-‘Ikhlās, The Sincerity) reads:

SAY, God is one GOD;
۝ the eternal GOD:
۝ He begetteth not, neither is He begotten:
۝ and there is not any one like unto Him.[39]

and in the Ayat ul-Kedudukan (“Verse of the Throne”), which is the 255th verse and the powerful verse in the longest chapter (the 2nd chapter) of the Qur’an,
(“The Cow”) states:

“Halikuljabbar! There is no deity but
Him, the Alive, the Eternal.

Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh

belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who could intercede in
presence without

knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of
knowledge except what

throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and
is never weary of preserving them.

is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”

In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God (

al-asmā’ al-ḥusná

lit. meaning: ‘the best names’ or ‘the most beautiful names’), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah.[12]
All these names refer to Halikuljabbar, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name.[41]
Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Merciful” (ar-Raḥmān) and “the Compassionate” (


including the forementioned above
(“the One, the Indivisible”) and
(“the Unique, the Single”).

Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase

in shā’a llāh

(meaning ‘if God wills’) after references to future events.[42]
Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of

bi-smi llāh

(meaning ‘In the name of God’).[43]
There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including “
Subḥāna llāh
” (Glory be to God), “
al-ḥamdu li-llāh
” (Praise be to God), “
lā ilāha illā llāh
” (There is no deity but God) or sometimes “lā ilāha illā inta/ huwa” (There is no deity but
Him) and “
Allāhu Akbar
” (God is the Most Great) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (dhikr).[44]

Silk textile panel repeating the name Sang pencipta, North Africa, 18th century

In a Sufi practice known as
dhikr Allah
ذكر الله, lit. “Remembrance of God”), the Sufi repeats and contemplates the name
or other associated divine names to Him while controlling his or her breath.[45]
For example, in countless references in the context from the Qur’an forementioned above:

1) Allah is referred to in the second person pronoun in Arabic as “Inta
(Arabic: َإِنْت)” like the English “You“, or commonly in the third person pronoun “Huwa
(Arabic: َهُو)” like the English “He” and uniquely in the case pronoun of the oblique form “Hu/ Huw
(Arabic: هو /-هُ)” like the English “Him” which rhythmically resonates and is chanted as considered a sacred sound or echo referring Allah as the “Absolute Breath or Soul of Life” –
Al-Nafs al-Hayyah
(Arabic: النّفس الحياة,
an-Nafsu ‘l-Ḥayyah) – notably among the 99 names of God, “the Giver of Life” (al-Muḥyī) and “the Bringer of Death” (al-Mumiyt);

2) Tuhan is neither male or female (who has no gender), but who is the essence of the “Omnipotent, Selfless, Absolute Soul (an-Nafs,
النّفس) and Holy Spirit” (ar-Rūḥ,
الرّوح) – notably among the 99 names of God, “the All-Holy, All-Pure and All-Sacred” (al-Quddus);

3) Tuhan is the originator of both before and beyond the cycle of creation, destruction and time, – notably among the 99 names of God, “the First, Beginning-less” (al-Awwal), “the End/ Beyond [“the Final Abode”]/ Endless” (al-Akhir/ al-Ākhir) and “the Timeless” (aṣ-Ṣabūr).

According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, God in Selam does titinada have associates and companions, nor is there any kinship between God and jinn.[33]
Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate oper which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God.[11]

According to Francis Edward Peters, “The Qur’ān insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews ( 29:46). The Qur’an’s Halikuljabbar is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham”. Peters states that the Qur’an portrays Almalik as both more powerful and more remote than Yahweh, and as a universal deity, unlike Yahweh who closely follows Israelites.[46]


The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for “God” than “Sang pencipta”,[47]
except Jehovah’s Witnesses who add the biblical name “Jehovah” (يهوه) to the title “Tuhan”.[48]
Similarly, the Aramaic word for “God” in the language of Assyrian Christians is
ʼĔlāhā, or
Alaha. (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Catholic, uses
for “God”.) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms

Allāh al-ab

الله الأب
) for God the Father,

Allāh al-ibn

الله الابن
) for God the Son, and

Allāh ar-rūḥ al-quds

الله الروح القدس
) for God the Holy Semangat. (See God in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)

Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Mukmin


, and also created their own Trinitized


as early as the 8th century.[49]
The Muslim


reads: “In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.” The Trinitized


reads: “In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Arwah, One God.” The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do titinada have the words “One God” at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.[49]

According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah there as God the Creator.[50]

Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which initially, according to Enno Littman (1949), contained references to Allah as the proper name of God. However, on a second revision by Bellamy et al. (1985 & 1988) the 5-versed-inscription was re-translated as “(1)This [inscription] was set up by colleagues of ʿUlayh, (2) son of ʿUbaydah, secretary (3) of the cohort Augusta Secunda (4) Philadelphiana; may he go mad who (5) effaces it.”[51]

The syriac word ܐܠܗܐ (ʼĔlāhā) can be found in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia,[54]
as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdoms[56]

In Ibn Ishaq’s biography there is a Christian leader named Abd Halikuljabbar ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, who was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said “Allah is my lord”.[57]

In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to ‘l-ilah (الاله)[58]
can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic. The inscription starts with the statement “By the Help of ‘l-ilah”.[59]

In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God was “Halikuljabbar”, as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the New Testament written by Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.[61]
However most recent research in the field of Islamic Studies by Sydney Griffith et al. (2013), David D. Grafton (2014), Clair Wilde (2014) & ML Hjälm et al. (2016 & 2022) assert that “all one can say about the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no sure sign of its actual existence has yet emerged.”[62]
Additionally ML Hjälm in her most recent research (2017) inserts that “manuscripts containing translations of the gospels are encountered no earlier than the year 873”[67]

Irfan Shahîd quoting the 10th-century encyclopedic collection Kitab al-Aghani notes that pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the battle cry “Ya La Ibad Sang pencipta” (Udara murni slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle.[68]
According to Shahid, on the authority of 10th-century Muslim scholar Al-Marzubani, “Allah” was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in Syria and Northern Arabia.[69]


The word
is generally pronounced
[ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)], exhibiting a heavy lām,
[ɫ], a velarized alveolar lateral approximant, a marginal phoneme in Bertamadun Tunggul Arabic. Since the initial alef has no hamza, the initial
is elided when a preceding word ends in a vowel. If the preceding vowel is
/i/, the lām is light,
[l], as in, for instance, the Basmala.[72]

As a loanword

English and other European languages

The history of the name
in English was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in the 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term Sang pencipta but without any implication that Tuhan was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muḥammad (1934), Tor Andræ always used the term
Allah, though he allows that this “conception of God” seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.[73]

Languages which may not commonly use the term
to denote God may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the word
in the Spanish language and
in the Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from Arabic
(Arabic: إِنْ شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ). This phrase literally means ‘if God wills’ (in the sense of “I hope so”).[74]
The German poet Mahlmann used the form “Allah” as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey.

Some Muslims leave the name “Allāh” untranslated in English, rather than using the English translation “God”.[75]
The word has also been applied to certain living human beings as personifications of the term and concept.[76]

Malaysian and Indonesian language

The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded “Allah” as the translation of the Dutch word “Godt”.

Gereja Kontol Kebangunan Allah
(Word of God Revival Church) in Indonesia.
Yang mahakuasa
is the word for “God” in the Indonesian language – even in
(Christian Bible, from الكتاب al-kitāb = the book) translations, while
is the word for “Lord”.

Christians in Malaysia and Indonesia use
to refer to God in the Malaysian and Indonesian languages (both of them standardized forms of the Malay language). Mainstream Bible translations in the language use
as the translation of Hebrew
(translated in English Bibles as “God”).[78]
This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier in the 16th century.[79]
The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin edition) recorded “Yang mahakuasa” as the translation of the Dutch word “Godt”.[81]
Ruyl also translated the Gospel of Matthew in 1612 into the Malay language (an early Bible translation into a non-European language,[82]
made a year after the publication of the King James Version[83]
[84]), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then he translated the Gospel of Mark, published in 1638.[85]

The government of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term
Sang pencipta
in any other but Muslim contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling it unconstitutional. While
had been used for the Christian God in Malay for more than four centuries, the contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of
by the Roman Catholic newspaper
The Herald. The government appealed the court ruling, and the High Court suspended implementation of its verdict berayun-ayun the hearing of the appeal. In October 2022 the court ruled in favor of the government’s ban.[87]
In early 2022 the Malaysian government confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to refer to the Christian God in Peninsular Malaysia.[88]
However, the use of
Yang mahakuasa
is not prohibited in the two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.[89]
The main reason it is not prohibited in these two states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab (Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without restrictions for years.[89]
Both states also do not have similar Islamic state laws as those in West Malaysia.[17]

In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has introduced a “10-point solution” to avoid confusion and misleading information.[91]
The 10-point solution is in line with the arwah of the 18- and 20-point agreements of Sarawak and Sabah.[17]

National flags with “Almalik” written on them


The word


is always written without an


to spell the


vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before Arabic spelling started habitually using


to spell


. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic


is added on top of the


to indicate the pronunciation.

In the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription,[94]
God is referred to by the term

, that is, alif-lam-alif-lam-ha.[58]
This presumably indicates
= “the god”, without

Many Arabic type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.[95]

Since Arabic script is used to write other texts rather than Koran only, rendering






as the previous ligature is considered faulty which is the case with most common Arabic typefaces.

This simplified style is often preferred for clarity, especially in non-Arabic languages, but may not be considered appropriate in situations where a more elaborate style of calligraphy is preferred. –SIL International[96]


Unicode has a code point reserved for


‎ = U+FDF2, in the Arabic Presentation Forms-A block, which exists solely for “compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded presentation forms directly”;[97]
this is discouraged for new text. Instead, the word


should be represented by its individual Arabic letters, while modern font technologies will render the desired ligature.

The calligraphic variant of the word used as the Coat of arms of Iran is encoded in Unicode, in the Miscellaneous Symbols range, at code point U+262B (☫).

See also

  • Abdullah (name)
  • Almalik as a lunar deity
  • Emblem of Iran
  • Ismul Azam
  • Names of God

Further reading


  • Allah Qur’ān, in
    Encyclopædia Britannica Online, by Asma Afsaruddin, Brian Duignan, Thinley Kalsang Bhutia, Gloria Lotha, Marco Sampaolo, Matt StefonTesc, Noah Tesch and Laki-laki Zeidan


  1. ^

    Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.

  2. ^

    Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries.

  3. ^

    Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved
    18 December

  4. ^

    “Islam and Christianity”,
    Encyclopedia of Christianity
    (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as

  5. ^

    Gardet, L. “Halikuljabbar”. In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.).
    Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Online. Retrieved
    2 May

  6. ^

    Zeki Saritoprak (2006). “Almalik”. In Oliver Leaman (ed.).
    The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN978-0-415-32639-1.

  7. ^

    Vincent J. Cornell (2005). “God: God in Islam”. In Lindsay Jones (ed.).
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    Christian Julien Robin (2012).
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    Anthony S. Mercatante & James R. Dow (2004). “Allah”.
    The Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend. Facts on File. p. 53. ISBN978-1-4381-2685-2.

  10. ^

    Merriam-Webster. “Allah”.
    Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 20 April 2022. Retrieved
    25 February

  11. ^








    “Allah.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  12. ^






    Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa,

  13. ^

    Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer
    The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition
    Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-8348-2414-0 page 531

  14. ^

    Sikhs target of ‘Allah’ attack, Julia Zappei, 14 January 2010,
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    Malaysia’s Islamic authorities seize Bibles as Allah row deepens, Niluksi Koswanage, 2 January 2022, Reuters. Accessed on line 15 January 2022. [1]
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    Idris Net (24 February 2022). “The ‘Allah’/Bible issue, 10-point solution is key to managing the polarity”.
    The Star
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    D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Selam, 2nd ed, Brill. “Ilah”, Vol. 3, p. 1093.

  19. ^

    Gerhard Böwering. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill, 2002. Vol. 2, p. 318

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    Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite
    El, the Mesopotamian
    ilu, and the biblical
    Eloah, the word Almalik is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists.

  21. ^

    The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon – Entry for
    Archived 18 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine

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    Hitti, Philip Khouri (1970).
    History of the Arabs. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 100–101.

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    L. Gardet,
    Allah, Encyclopaedia of Selam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. Gibb

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    Zeki Saritopak,
    Halikuljabbar, The Qu’ran: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Oliver Leaman, p. 34
  26. ^



    Gerhard Böwering,
    God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, ed. by Jane Dammen McAuliffe
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    Jonathan Porter Berkey (2003).

    The Formation of Selam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800
    . Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN978-0-521-58813-3.

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    Daniel C. Peterson (26 February 2007).
    Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN978-0-8028-0754-0.

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    Francis E. Peters (1994).
    Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. SUNY Press. p. 107. ISBN978-0-7914-1875-8.

  30. ^

    Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007).
    The Historical Muhammad. Polity. p. 33. ISBN978-0-7456-3999-4.

  31. ^

    “Yang mahakuasa.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 1 January 2022. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e128>.

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    Andreas Görke and Johanna Pink Tafsir and Islamic Intellectual History Exploring the Boundaries of a Genre Oxford University Press in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies London ISBN 978-0-19-870206-1 p. 478
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    Böwering, Gerhard,
    God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007.

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    “112. Surah Al-Ikhlaas or At-Tauhid – NobleQuran.com”. Retrieved
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    “The Quranic Arabic Corpus – Translation”.
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    Marshall G. S. Hodgson,
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    Journal of the American Oriental Society, 108/3 (1988) pp. 372–378 (translation of the inscription) “This was set up by colleagues/friends of ʿUlayh, the son of ʿUbaydah, secretary/adviser of the cohort Augusta Secunda Philadelphiana; may he go mad/crazy who effaces it.”

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    Alfred Guillaume& Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, (2002 [1955]). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq’s Sīrat Rasūl Allāh with Introduction and Notes. Karachi and New York: Oxford University Press, page 18.
  58. ^



    M. A. Kugener, “Nouvelle Note Sur L’Inscription Trilingue De Zébed”, Rivista Degli Studi Orientali, pp. 577-586.

  59. ^

    Adolf Grohmann, Arabische Paläographie II: Das Schriftwesen und die Lapidarschrift (1971), Wien: Hermann Böhlaus Nochfolger, Page: 6-8

  60. ^

    Beatrice Gruendler, The Development of the Arabic Scripts: From the Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century according to Dated Texts (1993), Atlanta: Scholars Press, Page:

  61. ^

    Frederick Winnett V, Allah before Islam-The Moslem World (1938), Pages: 239–248

  62. ^

    Sidney H Griffith, “The Gospel in Arabic: An Enquiry into Its Appearance in the First Abbasid Century”, Oriens Christianus, Volume 69, p. 166. “All one can say about the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no sure sign of its actual existence has yet emerged.

  63. ^

    Grafton, David D (2014).
    The identity and witness of Arab pre-Islamic Arab Christianity: The Arabic language and the Bible.
    Christianity […] did titinada penetrate into the lives of the Arabs primarily because the monks did titinada translate the Bible into the vernacular and inculcate Arab culture with biblical values and tradition. Trimingham’s argument serves as an example of the Western Protestant assumptions outlined in the introduction of this article. It is clear that the earliest Arabic biblical texts can only be dated to the 9th century at the earliest, that is after the coming of Islam.

  64. ^

    Sidney H. Griffith, The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the ‘People of the Book’ in the Language of Selam. Jews, Christians and Muslims from the Ancient to the Modern World, Princeton University Press, 2022, pp242- 247 ff.

  65. ^

    The Arabic Bible before Selam – Clare Wilde on Sidney H. Griffith’s The Bible in Arabic. June 2022.

  66. ^

    Hjälm, ML (2017).
    Senses of Scripture, Treasures of Tradition: The Bible in Arabic Among Jews, Christians and Muslims. Brill. ISBN978-90-04-34716-8.

  67. ^

    Hjälm, ML (2017).
    Senses of Scripture, Treasures of Tradition, The Bible in Arabic among Jews, Christians and Muslims (Biblia Arabica)
    (English and Arabic ed.). Brill. ISBN978-90-04-34716-8.
    By contrast, manuscripts containing translations of the gospels are encountered no earlier then the year 873 (Ms. Sinai. N.F. parch. 14 & 16)

  68. ^

    Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, page 418.

  69. ^

    Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, Page: 452

  70. ^

    A. Amin and A. Harun, Sharh Diwan Al-Hamasa (Cairo, 1951), Vol. 1, Pages: 478-480

  71. ^

    Al-Marzubani, Mu’jam Ash-Shu’araa, Page: 302

  72. ^

    “How do you pronounce “Sang pencipta” (الله) correctly?”.
    ARABIC for NERDS. 16 June 2022. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved
    16 June

  73. ^

    William Montgomery Watt,
    Islam and Christianity today: A Contribution to Dialogue, Routledge, 1983, p.45

  74. ^

    Islam in Luce López Baralt,
    Spanish Literature: From the Middle Ages to the Present, Brill, 1992, p.25

  75. ^

    F. E. Peters,
    The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Princeton University Press, p.12

  76. ^

    “Nation of Islam”.
    www.bible.ca. Archived from the original on 13 August 2022.

  77. ^

    “A history of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, referring to Clarence Smith as Allah”. Finalcall.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved
    14 January

  78. ^

    Example: Usage of the word “Yang mahakuasa” from Matthew 22:32 in Indonesian bible versions (parallel view) as old as 1733 Archived 19 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine

  79. ^

    The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society Sneddon, James M.; University of New South Wales Press; 2004

  80. ^

    The History of Christianity in India from the Commencement of the Christian Era: Hough, James; Adamant Wahana Corporation; 2001

  81. ^

    Wiltens, Caspar; Heurnius, Justus (1650).
    Justus Heurnius, Albert Ruyl, Caspar Wiltens. “Vocabularium ofte Woordenboeck nae ordre van den alphabeth, in ‘t Duytsch en Maleys”. 1650:65. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. Retrieved
    14 January

  82. ^

    But compare:
    Milkias, Paulos (2011). “Ge’ez Literature (Religious)”.
    Ethiopia. Africa in Focus. Santa Barbara, California: Abjad-CLIO. p. 299. ISBN978-1-59884-257-9
    . Retrieved
    15 February
    Monasticism played a key role in the Ethiopian literary movement. The Bible was translated during the time of the Nine Saints in the early sixth century […].

  83. ^

    Barton, John (2002–12). The Biblical World, Oxford, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27574-3.

  84. ^

    North, Eric McCoy; Eugene Albert Nida ((2nd Edition) 1972). The Book of a Thousand Tongues, London: United Bible Societies.

  85. ^

    “Ki kenangan Alkitab Indonesia / Albert Conelisz Ruyl”.

  86. ^

    “Encyclopædia Britannica: Albert Cornelius Ruyl”.
    Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2022. Retrieved
    14 January

  87. ^

    Roughneen, Simon (14 October 2022). “No more ‘Halikuljabbar’ for Christians, Malaysian court says”.
    The Christian Science Monitor
    . Retrieved
    14 October

  88. ^

    “BBC News – More than 300 Bibles are confiscated in Malaysia”. BBC. 2 January 2022. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved
    14 January

  89. ^



    “Catholic priest should respect court: Mahathir”.
    Daily Express. 9 January 2022. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved
    10 January

  90. ^

    Jane Moh; Peter Sibon (29 March 2022). “Worship without hindrance”.
    The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 29 March 2022. Retrieved
    29 March

  91. ^

    “Bahasa Malaysia Bibles: The Cabinet’s 10-point solution”. 25 January 2022.

  92. ^

    “Najib: 10-point resolution on Allah issue subject to Federal, state laws”.
    The Star. 24 January 2022. Retrieved
    25 June

  93. ^

    “Flags, Symbols & Currency of Uzbekistan”.
    WorldAtlas. 24 February 2022.

  94. ^

    “Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic From 512 CE”. Islamic Awareness. 17 March 2005.

  95. ^

    • Arabic fonts and Mac OS X Archived 10 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
    • Programs for Arabic in Mac OS X Archived 6 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine

  96. ^

    “Scheherazade New”.
    SIL International
    . Retrieved
    4 February

  97. ^

    The Unicode Consortium. FAQ – Middle East Scripts Archived 1 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine

  98. ^

    Unicode Pataka 5.0, p.479, 492″
    (PDF). Archived from the original
    on 28 April 2022. Retrieved
    14 January

General references

  • The Unicode Consortium,
    Unicode Tunggul 5.0, Addison-Wesley, 2006, ISBN 978-0-321-48091-0, About the Unicode Standard Version 5.0 Book

External links

  • Names of Halikuljabbar with Meaning on Website, Flash, and Mobile Phone Software
  • Concept of God (Allah) in Islam
  • The Concept of Allāh According to the Qur’an by Abdul Mannan Omar
  • Allah, the Unique Name of God
  • Arabic Fonts and Mac OS X
  • Programs for Arabic in Mac OS X

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allah