Apa Artinya Yes It Is

Arabic word for God

Halikuljabbar
(;[1]
[2]
Arabic:
الله,
romanized:

Allāh
,
IPA:
[ʔaɫ.ɫaːh]
(



listen

)
) is the common Arabic word for God. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam.[3]
[4]
[5]
The word is thought to be derived by contraction from
al-ilāh, which means “the god”, and is linguistically related to the Aramaic words Elah and Syriac

ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ

(ʼAlāhā) and the Hebrew word
El
(Elohim) for God.[6]
[7]

The word
Allah
has been used by Arabic people of different religions since pre-Islamic times.[8]
The pre-Islamic Arabs worshipped a supreme deity whom they called Sang pencipta, alongside other lesser deities.[9]
Muhammad used the word
Sang pencipta
to indicate the Islamic conception of God.
Yang mahakuasa
has been used as a term for God by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and even Arab Christians[10]
after the term “al-ilāh” and “Allah” were used interchangeably in Classical Arabic by the majority of Arabs who had become Muslims. It is also often, albeit not exclusively, used in this way by Bábists, Baháʼís, Mandaeans, Indonesian and Maltese Christians, and Sephardi Jews.[11]
[12]
[13]
Similar usage by Christians and Sikhs in West Malaysia has recently led to political and legal controversies.[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]

Etymology

The etymology of the word
Allāh
has been discussed extensively by classical Arab philologists.[18]
Grammarians of the Basra school regarded it as either formed “spontaneously” (murtajal) or as the definite form of
lāh
(from the oral root
lyh
with the meaning of “lofty” or “hidden”).[18]
Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew, but most considered it to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article
al-
“the” and


ilāh


“deity, god” to


al-lāh


meaning
“the deity”, or
“the God”.[18]
The majority of modern scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword hypothesis with skepticism.[19]

Cognates of the name “Allāh” exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic.[20]
The corresponding Aramaic form is
Elah
(
אלה
), but its emphatic state is


Elaha


(
אלהא
). It is written as

ܐܠܗܐ

(
ʼĔlāhā
) in Biblical Aramaic and

ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ

(
ʼAlâhâ
) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply “God”.[21]

History of usage

Pre-Islamic Arabians

Regional variants of the word
Allah
occur in both pagan and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions.[8]
[22]
Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Halikuljabbar in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. According to the Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir, Arab pagans considered Tuhan as an unseen God who created and controlled the Universe. Pagans believed worship of humans or animals who had lucky events in their life brought them closer to God. Pre-Islamic Meccans worshiped Tuhan alongside a host of lesser gods and those whom they called the “daughters of Allah.”[9]
Islam forbade worship of anyone or thing other than God.[23]
Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name as a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon.[24]
[25]
The term may have been vague in the Meccan religion.[24]
[26]
According to one hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Yang mahakuasa (the supreme deity of the tribal federation around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) adv lewat the other gods.[8]
However, there is also evidence that Allah and Hubal were two distinct deities.[8]
According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Yang mahakuasa and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh after their conquest of Mecca, about a century before the time of Muhammad.[8]
Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Tuhan as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but nothing precise is known about this use.[8]
Some scholars have suggested that Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities.[27]
[28]
There is disagreement on whether Allah played a major role in the Meccan religious cult.[27]
[29]
No iconic representation of Allah is known to have existed.[29]
[30]
Yang mahakuasa is the only god in Mecca that did not have an idol.[31]
Muhammad’s father’s name was

ʿAbd-Allāh

meaning “the slave of Allāh”.[26]

Selam

In Islam,
Allah
is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God in other Abrahamic religions.[11]
[12]
Tuhan
is usually seen as the personal name of God, a notion which became disputed in contemporary scholarship, including the question, whether or not the word
Almalik
should be translated as
God.[32]

According to Islamic belief, Allah is the most common word to represent God,[33]
and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith.[11]
“He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind.”[11]
[12]
“He is unique (

wāḥid

) and inherently one (

aḥad

), all-merciful and omnipotent.”[11]
No human eyes can see Allah till the Day Of Judgement.[34]
The Qur’an declares “the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures.”[11]
Allah doesn’t depend on anything.[35]
God is titinada a part of the Christian Trinity.[36]
God has no parents and no children.[37]

The concept correlates to the Tawhid, where chapter 112 of the Qur’an (Al-‘Ikhlās, The Sincerity) reads:

۝[38]
SAY, God is one GOD;
۝ the eternal GOD:
۝ He begetteth not, neither is He begotten:
۝ and there is not any one like unto Him.[39]

and in the Ayat ul-Kedudukan (“Verse of the Throne”), which is the 255th verse and the powerful verse in the longest chapter (the 2nd chapter) of the Qur’an,
Al-Baqarah
(“The Cow”) states:

“Halikuljabbar! There is no deity but
Him, the Alive, the Eternal.

Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh
Him.

Unto
Him
belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who could intercede in
His
presence without
His
permission?

He
knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of
His
knowledge except what
He
wills.

His
throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and
He
is never weary of preserving them.

He
is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”

In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God (

al-asmā’ al-ḥusná


lit. meaning: ‘the best names’ or ‘the most beautiful names’), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah.[12]
[40]
All these names refer to Halikuljabbar, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name.[41]
Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Merciful” (ar-Raḥmān) and “the Compassionate” (

ar-Raḥīm

),[12]
[40]
including the forementioned above
al-Aḥad
(“the One, the Indivisible”) and
al-Wāḥid
(“the Unique, the Single”).

Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase


in shā’a llāh


(meaning ‘if God wills’) after references to future events.[42]
Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of


bi-smi llāh


(meaning ‘In the name of God’).[43]
There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including “
Subḥāna llāh
” (Glory be to God), “
al-ḥamdu li-llāh
” (Praise be to God), “
lā ilāha illā llāh
” (There is no deity but God) or sometimes “lā ilāha illā inta/ huwa” (There is no deity but
You/
Him) and “
Allāhu Akbar
” (God is the Most Great) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (dhikr).[44]

Silk textile panel repeating the name Sang pencipta, North Africa, 18th century

In a Sufi practice known as
dhikr Allah
(Arabic:
ذكر الله, lit. “Remembrance of God”), the Sufi repeats and contemplates the name
Tuhan
or other associated divine names to Him while controlling his or her breath.[45]
For example, in countless references in the context from the Qur’an forementioned above:

1) Allah is referred to in the second person pronoun in Arabic as “Inta
(Arabic: َإِنْت)” like the English “You“, or commonly in the third person pronoun “Huwa
(Arabic: َهُو)” like the English “He” and uniquely in the case pronoun of the oblique form “Hu/ Huw
(Arabic: هو /-هُ)” like the English “Him” which rhythmically resonates and is chanted as considered a sacred sound or echo referring Allah as the “Absolute Breath or Soul of Life” –
Al-Nafs al-Hayyah
(Arabic: النّفس الحياة,
an-Nafsu ‘l-Ḥayyah) – notably among the 99 names of God, “the Giver of Life” (al-Muḥyī) and “the Bringer of Death” (al-Mumiyt);

2) Tuhan is neither male or female (who has no gender), but who is the essence of the “Omnipotent, Selfless, Absolute Soul (an-Nafs,
النّفس) and Holy Spirit” (ar-Rūḥ,
الرّوح) – notably among the 99 names of God, “the All-Holy, All-Pure and All-Sacred” (al-Quddus);

3) Tuhan is the originator of both before and beyond the cycle of creation, destruction and time, – notably among the 99 names of God, “the First, Beginning-less” (al-Awwal), “the End/ Beyond [“the Final Abode”]/ Endless” (al-Akhir/ al-Ākhir) and “the Timeless” (aṣ-Ṣabūr).

According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, God in Selam does titinada have associates and companions, nor is there any kinship between God and jinn.[33]
Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate oper which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God.[11]

According to Francis Edward Peters, “The Qur’ān insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews ( 29:46). The Qur’an’s Halikuljabbar is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham”. Peters states that the Qur’an portrays Almalik as both more powerful and more remote than Yahweh, and as a universal deity, unlike Yahweh who closely follows Israelites.[46]

Christianity

The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for “God” than “Sang pencipta”,[47]
except Jehovah’s Witnesses who add the biblical name “Jehovah” (يهوه) to the title “Tuhan”.[48]
Similarly, the Aramaic word for “God” in the language of Assyrian Christians is
ʼĔlāhā, or
Alaha. (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Catholic, uses
Alla
for “God”.) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms


Allāh al-ab


(
الله الأب
) for God the Father,


Allāh al-ibn


(
الله الابن
) for God the Son, and


Allāh ar-rūḥ al-quds


(
الله الروح القدس
) for God the Holy Semangat. (See God in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)

Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Mukmin


bismillāh

, and also created their own Trinitized


bismillāh


as early as the 8th century.[49]
The Muslim


bismillāh


reads: “In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.” The Trinitized


bismillāh


reads: “In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Arwah, One God.” The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do titinada have the words “One God” at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.[49]

According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah there as God the Creator.[50]

Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which initially, according to Enno Littman (1949), contained references to Allah as the proper name of God. However, on a second revision by Bellamy et al. (1985 & 1988) the 5-versed-inscription was re-translated as “(1)This [inscription] was set up by colleagues of ʿUlayh, (2) son of ʿUbaydah, secretary (3) of the cohort Augusta Secunda (4) Philadelphiana; may he go mad who (5) effaces it.”[51]
[52]
[53]

The syriac word ܐܠܗܐ (ʼĔlāhā) can be found in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia,[54]
[55]
as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdoms[56]

In Ibn Ishaq’s biography there is a Christian leader named Abd Halikuljabbar ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, who was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said “Allah is my lord”.[57]

In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to ‘l-ilah (الاله)[58]
can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic. The inscription starts with the statement “By the Help of ‘l-ilah”.[59]
[60]

In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God was “Halikuljabbar”, as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the New Testament written by Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.[61]
However most recent research in the field of Islamic Studies by Sydney Griffith et al. (2013), David D. Grafton (2014), Clair Wilde (2014) & ML Hjälm et al. (2016 & 2022) assert that “all one can say about the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no sure sign of its actual existence has yet emerged.”[62]
[63]
[64]
[65]
[66]
Additionally ML Hjälm in her most recent research (2017) inserts that “manuscripts containing translations of the gospels are encountered no earlier than the year 873”[67]

Irfan Shahîd quoting the 10th-century encyclopedic collection Kitab al-Aghani notes that pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the battle cry “Ya La Ibad Sang pencipta” (Udara murni slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle.[68]
According to Shahid, on the authority of 10th-century Muslim scholar Al-Marzubani, “Allah” was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in Syria and Northern Arabia.[69]
[70]
[71]

Pronunciation

The word
Allāh
is generally pronounced
[ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)], exhibiting a heavy lām,
[ɫ], a velarized alveolar lateral approximant, a marginal phoneme in Bertamadun Tunggul Arabic. Since the initial alef has no hamza, the initial
[a]
is elided when a preceding word ends in a vowel. If the preceding vowel is
/i/, the lām is light,
[l], as in, for instance, the Basmala.[72]

As a loanword

English and other European languages

The history of the name
Allāh
in English was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in the 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term Sang pencipta but without any implication that Tuhan was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muḥammad (1934), Tor Andræ always used the term
Allah, though he allows that this “conception of God” seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.[73]

Languages which may not commonly use the term
Allah
to denote God may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the word
ojalá
in the Spanish language and
oxalá
in the Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from Arabic
inshalla
(Arabic: إِنْ شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ). This phrase literally means ‘if God wills’ (in the sense of “I hope so”).[74]
The German poet Mahlmann used the form “Allah” as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey.

Some Muslims leave the name “Allāh” untranslated in English, rather than using the English translation “God”.[75]
The word has also been applied to certain living human beings as personifications of the term and concept.[76]
[77]

Malaysian and Indonesian language

The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded “Allah” as the translation of the Dutch word “Godt”.

Gereja Kontol Kebangunan Allah
(Word of God Revival Church) in Indonesia.
Yang mahakuasa
is the word for “God” in the Indonesian language – even in
Alkitab
(Christian Bible, from الكتاب al-kitāb = the book) translations, while
Tuhan
is the word for “Lord”.

Christians in Malaysia and Indonesia use
Allah
to refer to God in the Malaysian and Indonesian languages (both of them standardized forms of the Malay language). Mainstream Bible translations in the language use
Allah
as the translation of Hebrew
Elohim
(translated in English Bibles as “God”).[78]
This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier in the 16th century.[79]
[80]
The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin edition) recorded “Yang mahakuasa” as the translation of the Dutch word “Godt”.[81]
Ruyl also translated the Gospel of Matthew in 1612 into the Malay language (an early Bible translation into a non-European language,[82]
made a year after the publication of the King James Version[83]
[84]), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then he translated the Gospel of Mark, published in 1638.[85]
[86]

The government of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term
Sang pencipta
in any other but Muslim contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling it unconstitutional. While
Allah
had been used for the Christian God in Malay for more than four centuries, the contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of
Allah
by the Roman Catholic newspaper
The Herald. The government appealed the court ruling, and the High Court suspended implementation of its verdict berayun-ayun the hearing of the appeal. In October 2022 the court ruled in favor of the government’s ban.[87]
In early 2022 the Malaysian government confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to refer to the Christian God in Peninsular Malaysia.[88]
However, the use of
Yang mahakuasa
is not prohibited in the two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.[89]
[90]
The main reason it is not prohibited in these two states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab (Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without restrictions for years.[89]
Both states also do not have similar Islamic state laws as those in West Malaysia.[17]

In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has introduced a “10-point solution” to avoid confusion and misleading information.[91]
[92]
The 10-point solution is in line with the arwah of the 18- and 20-point agreements of Sarawak and Sabah.[17]


National flags with “Almalik” written on them

Typography

The word


Allāh


is always written without an

alif

to spell the


ā


vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before Arabic spelling started habitually using


alif


to spell


ā

. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic


alif


is added on top of the


shaddah


to indicate the pronunciation.

In the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription,[94]
God is referred to by the term

الاله
, that is, alif-lam-alif-lam-ha.[58]
This presumably indicates
Al-‘ilāh
= “the god”, without
alif
for
ā.

Many Arabic type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.[95]

Since Arabic script is used to write other texts rather than Koran only, rendering


lām


+


lām


+


hā’


as the previous ligature is considered faulty which is the case with most common Arabic typefaces.

This simplified style is often preferred for clarity, especially in non-Arabic languages, but may not be considered appropriate in situations where a more elaborate style of calligraphy is preferred. –SIL International[96]

Unicode

Unicode has a code point reserved for


Allāh

,
‎ = U+FDF2, in the Arabic Presentation Forms-A block, which exists solely for “compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded presentation forms directly”;[97]
[98]
this is discouraged for new text. Instead, the word


Allāh


should be represented by its individual Arabic letters, while modern font technologies will render the desired ligature.

The calligraphic variant of the word used as the Coat of arms of Iran is encoded in Unicode, in the Miscellaneous Symbols range, at code point U+262B (☫).

See also

  • Abdullah (name)
  • Almalik as a lunar deity
  • Emblem of Iran
  • Ismul Azam
  • Names of God

Further reading

Online

  • Allah Qur’ān, in
    Encyclopædia Britannica Online, by Asma Afsaruddin, Brian Duignan, Thinley Kalsang Bhutia, Gloria Lotha, Marco Sampaolo, Matt StefonTesc, Noah Tesch and Laki-laki Zeidan

Citations


  1. ^

    “Tuhan”.
    Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.

  2. ^


    “Allah”.
    Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries.



  3. ^


    “God”.
    Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved
    18 December
    2010
    .



  4. ^

    “Islam and Christianity”,
    Encyclopedia of Christianity
    (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as
    Allāh.

  5. ^


    Gardet, L. “Halikuljabbar”. In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.).
    Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Online. Retrieved
    2 May
    2007
    .



  6. ^


    Zeki Saritoprak (2006). “Almalik”. In Oliver Leaman (ed.).
    The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN978-0-415-32639-1.



  7. ^


    Vincent J. Cornell (2005). “God: God in Islam”. In Lindsay Jones (ed.).
    Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 5 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference USA. p. 724.


  8. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    Christian Julien Robin (2012).
    Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity. OUP USA. pp. 304–305. ISBN978-0-19-533693-1.


  9. ^


    a




    b




    Anthony S. Mercatante & James R. Dow (2004). “Allah”.
    The Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend. Facts on File. p. 53. ISBN978-1-4381-2685-2.



  10. ^


    Merriam-Webster. “Allah”.
    Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 20 April 2022. Retrieved
    25 February
    2022
    .


  11. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    g




    “Allah.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  12. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e



    Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa,
    Allah

  13. ^

    Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer
    The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition
    Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-8348-2414-0 page 531

  14. ^

    Sikhs target of ‘Allah’ attack, Julia Zappei, 14 January 2010,
    The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2022.

  15. ^

    Malaysia court rules non-Muslims can’kaki langit use ‘Allah’, 14 October 2022,
    The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2022.

  16. ^

    Malaysia’s Islamic authorities seize Bibles as Allah row deepens, Niluksi Koswanage, 2 January 2022, Reuters. Accessed on line 15 January 2022. [1]
  17. ^


    a




    b




    c




    Idris Net (24 February 2022). “The ‘Allah’/Bible issue, 10-point solution is key to managing the polarity”.
    The Star
    . Retrieved
    25 June
    2022
    .


  18. ^


    a




    b




    c



    D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Selam, 2nd ed, Brill. “Ilah”, Vol. 3, p. 1093.

  19. ^

    Gerhard Böwering. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill, 2002. Vol. 2, p. 318

  20. ^

    Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite
    El, the Mesopotamian
    ilu, and the biblical
    Elohim
    and
    Eloah, the word Almalik is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists.

  21. ^

    The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon – Entry for
    ʼlh
    Archived 18 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine

  22. ^


    Hitti, Philip Khouri (1970).
    History of the Arabs. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 100–101.



  23. ^


    IslamKotob.
    Tafsir Ibn Kathir all 10 volumes. IslamKotob.


  24. ^


    a




    b



    L. Gardet,
    Allah, Encyclopaedia of Selam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. Gibb

  25. ^

    Zeki Saritopak,
    Halikuljabbar, The Qu’ran: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Oliver Leaman, p. 34
  26. ^


    a




    b



    Gerhard Böwering,
    God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, ed. by Jane Dammen McAuliffe
  27. ^


    a




    b




    Jonathan Porter Berkey (2003).

    The Formation of Selam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800
    . Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN978-0-521-58813-3.



  28. ^


    Daniel C. Peterson (26 February 2007).
    Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN978-0-8028-0754-0.


  29. ^


    a




    b




    Francis E. Peters (1994).
    Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. SUNY Press. p. 107. ISBN978-0-7914-1875-8.



  30. ^


    Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007).
    The Historical Muhammad. Polity. p. 33. ISBN978-0-7456-3999-4.



  31. ^

    “Yang mahakuasa.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 1 January 2022. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e128>.

  32. ^

    Andreas Görke and Johanna Pink Tafsir and Islamic Intellectual History Exploring the Boundaries of a Genre Oxford University Press in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies London ISBN 978-0-19-870206-1 p. 478
  33. ^


    a




    b



    Böwering, Gerhard,
    God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007.

  34. ^


    “The Quranic Arabic Corpus – Translation”.
    corpus.quran.com
    . Retrieved
    11 April
    2022
    .



  35. ^


    “112. Surah Al-Ikhlaas or At-Tauhid – NobleQuran.com”. Retrieved
    11 April
    2022
    .



  36. ^


    “The Quranic Arabic Corpus – Translation”.
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    {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

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    Christianity […] did titinada penetrate into the lives of the Arabs primarily because the monks did titinada translate the Bible into the vernacular and inculcate Arab culture with biblical values and tradition. Trimingham’s argument serves as an example of the Western Protestant assumptions outlined in the introduction of this article. It is clear that the earliest Arabic biblical texts can only be dated to the 9th century at the earliest, that is after the coming of Islam.



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    But compare:
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    Monasticism played a key role in the Ethiopian literary movement. The Bible was translated during the time of the Nine Saints in the early sixth century […].



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    Roughneen, Simon (14 October 2022). “No more ‘Halikuljabbar’ for Christians, Malaysian court says”.
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    “BBC News – More than 300 Bibles are confiscated in Malaysia”. BBC. 2 January 2022. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved
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    “Catholic priest should respect court: Mahathir”.
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    Jane Moh; Peter Sibon (29 March 2022). “Worship without hindrance”.
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  91. ^


    “Bahasa Malaysia Bibles: The Cabinet’s 10-point solution”. 25 January 2022.


  92. ^


    “Najib: 10-point resolution on Allah issue subject to Federal, state laws”.
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  93. ^


    “Flags, Symbols & Currency of Uzbekistan”.
    WorldAtlas. 24 February 2022.



  94. ^


    “Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic From 512 CE”. Islamic Awareness. 17 March 2005.


  95. ^

    • Arabic fonts and Mac OS X Archived 10 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
    • Programs for Arabic in Mac OS X Archived 6 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine


  96. ^


    “Scheherazade New”.
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  97. ^

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  98. ^


    Unicode Pataka 5.0, p.479, 492″
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    (PDF)
    on 28 April 2022. Retrieved
    14 January
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General references

  • The Unicode Consortium,
    Unicode Tunggul 5.0, Addison-Wesley, 2006, ISBN 978-0-321-48091-0, About the Unicode Standard Version 5.0 Book

External links

  • Names of Halikuljabbar with Meaning on Website, Flash, and Mobile Phone Software
  • Concept of God (Allah) in Islam
  • The Concept of Allāh According to the Qur’an by Abdul Mannan Omar
  • Allah, the Unique Name of God
Typography
  • Arabic Fonts and Mac OS X
  • Programs for Arabic in Mac OS X



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allah